is a research professor at the National University of Singapore and was a visiting Professor at the Universities of Harvard, Princeton and Oxford. He opposed the Ba’th regime since its ascendance to power, and after its fall, he became Minister of Trade, Defense, and Finance. He was elected to the National Assembly in 2005. He earned a B.Sc. in Transportation and Urban Planning from MIT, and an MBA in Economics and International Finance from Harvard University. Took part in establishing several international banking and investment companies and worked for the World Bank as a Finance and Investment expert. He is the author of several books, including The Occupation of Iraq, The Crisis of Islamic Civilization, and Faisal I of Iraq. He is working on a book addressing the comparative economic history of developing countries since WWII. He received several international awards including, Tufts Award for World Diplomacy (2007), Nanyang University Award (2009), and an Honorary Professorship from Beloit College (2010). He was also elected as fourth most influential thinker in the world by an independent international committee formed by Prospect Magazine.